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research-and-clinical-trials

Research snapshot: Thirty percent of antibiotic prescribing unnecessary

Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern in the United States, causing 23,000 fatalities annually from exposure to harmful effects, according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Excessive antibiotic use is the main driver for the resistance, leading the White House to implement the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, which sets the goal of decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use by 50 percent by 2020.

School of Public Health Assistant Professor, Eva Enns, Ph.D., collaborated with researchers from the CDC and various colleges around the country to determine the number of outpatient visits in which antibiotics were inappropriately prescribed. They found an estimated 30 percent of outpatient antibiotic prescribing was unnecessary in 2010-2011.

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research-and-clinical-trials

Research snapshot: Study finds high likelihood of over-service at alcohol establishments

Excessive alcohol consumption in bars and restaurants has been directly linked to drinking and driving and incidents of violence. Despite laws prohibiting over-service, alcohol establishments are continuing to serve obviously intoxicated customers, according to a recent study from the School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota.

“Measuring the likelihood that bars and restaurants will sell alcohol to intoxicated patrons is an important step in understanding the scope of this public health issue,” said Kathleen Lenk, M.P.H., research fellow and co-author of the study. “Preventing and reducing sales to intoxicated customers may lead to decreased alcohol-impaired driving, fatal traffic crashes, alcohol-related violence and other harms.”

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research-and-clinical-trials

School of Public Health researcher examines impact of pets on cardiovascular risk prevention

Pets could be beneficial to our health. Think: cuddling with your dog could act as a de-stressor, which, hypothetically could reduce blood pressure and help the immune system. But some studies point to negative health impacts, too. That’s why School of Public Health researcher Pamela Schreiner, Ph.D. compared various studies on the health effects of pet ownership in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in a recent article.

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research-and-clinical-trials

Research snapshot: Indoor tanning, a driver in melanoma trends among young women and men

Photo: Flickr user, Gregg Scott, CC, https://flic.kr/p/CZFhb

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to ban indoor tanning for minors as physicians have seen an increase in melanoma cases among young adults in recent decades.

In a study released today in a Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA Dermatology), researchers from the University of Minnesota’s School of Public Health examined age- and sex-specific associations between indoor tanning and melanoma to determine whether the tanning trend is driving the increase in cases, especially among younger women.

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research-and-clinical-trials

Research snapshot: Race simulation testing recommended for runners with recurrent heat stroke

It’s no surprise that athletes are at risk for heat stroke during the blazing summer months; however, a recent case study from the University of Minnesota demonstrates that exertional heat stroke (EHS), a form of heat-induced illness, could still be life-threatening to athletes in cooler temperatures.

The research investigated a 30-year-old distance runner with a history of recurrent heat strokes while racing. A unique circumstance in relatively cool weather triggered a more extensive examination for cause, says William Roberts, M.D., author of the study from the Department of Family Medicine & Community Health in the University of Minnesota Medical School. The runner suffered from EHS despite the cooler temperature, highlighting the importance of race simulation testing for return-to-activity among athletes with a history of EHS.

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research-and-clinical-trials

Research snapshot: Rural women with higher risk pregnancies likely to give birth at non-local hospitals

Approximately half a million women living in rural areas give birth in U.S. hospitals each year, making ready access to high quality services a priority for both low-risk and high-risk pregnant patients. A recent study from the University of Minnesota’s School of Public Health investigated where rural patients give birth, including whether or not they give birth locally.

“We conducted this study to better understand current patterns of local or non-local childbirth for rural patients and to lay a groundwork for operationalizing maternal levels of care in rural areas,” said lead author, Katy Kozhimannil, Ph.D., associate professor in the School of Public Health.

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